Tempo de leitura: 3 minutos
UNIDO was among the first development agencies to define guidelines for the establishment of industrial parks in the 1990s.In the 2000s, several UNIDO publications addressed the issue of industrial parks such as UNIDO Industrial Development Report 2002/2003: Competing through Innovation and Learning and Industrial Development Report 2009: Breaking In and Moving Up: New Industrial Challenges for the Bottom Billion and the Middle- Income Countries.
A series of regional conferences on industrial parks were held from 2010 to 2015 in Azerbaijan, Slovenia and Belarus and led to related publications. ese conferences facilitated networking, knowledge and experience-sharing among policy-makers, practitioners and academics to better under-stand the role of a new generation of industrial parks and special economic zones and to build the capacity of public and private stakeholders to design, establish and manage industrial parks.
is strategic framework was prepared in the context of the UNIDO Project: Fostering inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in the New Silk Road Economic Belt, later referred to as the Belt and Road Initiative: Leveraging the potential of industrial parks, zones and cities in Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It is designed to assist national and international stakeholders in using various forms of industrial parks and zones as spatial policy instruments to promote balanced regional economic development and inclusive and sustainable industrialization.
e framework identifies critical issues and outlines the major steps to be taken for the establishment and management of an industrial park or special economic zone. It provides guidelines, in accordance with inter- national best practices, rather than solutions, support- ing the decision-making process for establishing new parks and zones and their operation—and enhancing existing parks and zones’ effectiveness in promoting ISID of the regions or areas where they are located.
Parks and zones can be adapted to different economic and political settings—from less developed countries, to transition economies, to resource-based economies and to middle income countries. e challenge for governments is to ensure they are used most e ectively and e ciently within a given country context. e stra- tegic framework is a road map in that direction:
• It provides a brief overview of concepts of industrial parks, zones and other territorial units, their roles and expectations as spatial development policy instruments, highlighting their evolution over time and links with growth pole theory and regional development approaches.
• It underlines the importance of parks and zones in facilitating linking SMEs and their clusters to regional and global value chains.
• It clari es the roles of various stakeholders, such as policymakers, regulators, zone and park authorities and management bodies, as well as investors, enter- prises, employees and representatives of civil society in designing and implementing park and zone projects.
• It presents good practices and successful experi- ences in establishing and managing industrial parks in line with ISID.
• It explains the principal phases of planning, designing and implementing a park or zone pro- ject: preparatory analysis; diagnostics; policy design and planning; implementation and nanc- ing; operation and adaptation, promotion and marketing; and monitoring and evaluation.
• It provides a checklist to gather and analyse infor- mation as part of the process of planning and imple- menting new parks and refurbishing existing ones.
• It delineates key success factors and minimum requirements, or performance indicators, covering legal, regulatory, social, economic and environmental aspects and related topics, to monitor and evaluate existing or planned parks and zones, with the objec- tive of contributing to national progress on realizing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).